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What is a special process? Which processes should be specifically defined?

What does the term "special process", which is frequently used by employees in space, aviation, defense and automotive companies, mean?

What is a special process?

Short description:

Special processes are those in which the resulting output (or "functionality") cannot be determined until the product is in use.

Often, determining whether a product meets specifications after a “special treatment” requires destructive testing.

To give an example,

Since we cannot know whether an egg is boiled or unboiled, or if it is boiled, whether it is hard-boiled or apricot-like, without breaking its shell, we need to create a damage to understand this situation. Therefore, the boiling process (heat treatment) is a special process for breakfast.

Special process characteristics should be determined in advance and the maintenance and calibration processes of the equipment on which the process is carried out should be followed with precision. Engineers, technicians and operators who manage the process must be specially trained.

While special processes can be determined by higher institutions, companies can also determine their own special processes.

According to the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG), there are a total of 8 different special processes. A special evaluation table for each special process is published by AIAG at regular intervals.

Brazing, brazing

1. Brazing , Brazing: CQI-29 Soldering System Evaluation is the youngest CQI standard. It determines the way of doing business for businesses that do brazing.

2. Casting : CQI-27 Special Process: Casting System Evaluation provides requirements for foundry suppliers of OEM automotive castings. It is not a detailed description of the entire foundry process. Rather, it focuses on common failure modes that cause OEM customers to receive non-conforming castings from foundries. Written from an OEM and Tier 1 perspective.

3. Coating : The CQI-12 Coating System Evaluation has been developed to provide much more detail on pyrometer requirements, including instrumentation, thermocouple checks, and temperature uniformity surveys.

4. Heat treatment : The CQI-9 Heat Treatment System Assessment aims to provide a common approach to a heat treatment management system for the most common heat treatment processes used by the automotive industry, automotive manufacturing and service parts organizations.

5. Molding : AIAG's CQI-23 Molding System Assessment is a common process approach to control molding processes and a methodology to evaluate and improve existing processes.

6. Plating : The CQI-11 Plating System Assessment was developed to help better evaluate quality systems at plating shops that supply OEM automotive coatings, such as zinc and zinc alloy electrodeposits, decorative coating applied to metal or plastic. Hard chrome plating deposits, as well as electroless nickel and electropolishing processes are also included in this standard.

7. Soldering : As technology changes rapidly and tools become increasingly controlled by electronic systems, the CQI-17 Soldering Assessment will become more important in the coming days as it reflects new production methods, process controls and acceptability criteria for soldering.

8. Welding , Welding: Welding System Assessment CQI-15 is a comprehensive audit covering all types of welding that aims to provide a common approach to a welding management system for automotive manufacturing and service parts organizations.

According to the National Aerospace and Defense Contractors Accreditation Program (NADCAP) National Aerospace and Defense Suppliers Accreditation program, we can list the special processes as follows;

  • Coatings (CT)

  • Heat Treatment (HT)

  • Source (WLD)

  • Chemical Processing (CP)

  • Non-Traditional Machining and Surface Treatment (NMSE)

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